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Well-being of residents of Ukraine in April 2021
The press release was prepared by Natalia Kharchenko
The assessment of public welfare by the population of Ukraine is negative, the index is -32 (its value can vary from -100 to +100). Compared to 2018, this estimate has increased slightly. On average, Ukrainians are much more satisfied with their own lives than with the life of the country (the index is higher by 47 points), over the past five years the index of individual well-being has risen from -8 to +15 and is now the highest for the observation period.
During April 16-22, 2021, the Kyiv International Institute of Sociology (KIIS) conducted an all-Ukrainian public opinion poll. By the method of computer-assisted telephone interviews (CATI) based on a random sample of mobile telephone numbers 2003 respondents were interviewed living in all regions of Ukraine (except the Autonomous Republic of Crimea). The sample is representative for the adult population (18 years and older) of Ukraine. The sample does not include territories that are temporarily not controlled by the authorities of Ukraine - the Autonomous Republic of Crimea, certain districts of Donetsk and Luhansk regions.
In Luhansk and Donetsk oblasts, the survey was conducted only in the territory controlled by the Ukrainian authorities.
Statistical sampling error (with a probability of 0.95 and taking into account the design effect of 1.1) does not exceed 2.4 % .
To assess and monitor public and individual well-being , KIIS has developed indexes: Index of perception of public welfare (IPW) and index of individual welfare (IIW). The values of the indexes can range from -100 to 100 points, where -100 indicates the lowest assessments of the situation and dissatisfaction, and 100 - the highest assessments and overall satisfaction with the situation in the country or their own lives. A detailed description of the index calculation methodology can be found in the Annex. But the idea of the indexes is that they combine several main indicators that characterize the population's assessment of the situation in the country (index of public welfare) and assessment of their own situation (index of individual welfare). The first index integrates the overall assessment of the situation in the country (whether we are moving in that direction), the assessment of the economic situation and prospects for development, and the second index - the assessment of their health, happiness, welfare and prospects for changing family welfare.
In April 2021, the average value of IPW is -32, while individual well-being is rated much higher - at 15 points. Such a large difference in indicators shows that, despite all the troubles, Ukrainians are on average much more satisfied with their own lives than with the life of the country.
The values of both indices increased and are the highest for the entire observation period.
Graph 1. Dynamics of IPW and IIW indices in Ukraine during 2012-2021.
If to take a closer look at the components of the IPW index, we note that the lowest score among the three components of the index falls on the assessment of Ukraine's economic situation - the average for this indicator is -54 points (-50 on our scale - "poor economic situation"). If to talk about the expectations of what life will be like in the country, the scores were slightly higher - the average score for Ukraine is -18 points. The average assessment of the correctness of the direction of development of Ukraine is -24 points and it is due to the growth of this indicator is a general increase in the IPW index.
The growth of the index of individual welfare was mainly due to an increase in the level of optimism about family life in the future and an increase in assessments of the family's financial situation, which, however, remain negative (see Table 1).
Table 1. Dynamics of indices of public and individual welfare in Ukraine in 2012-2017.
What characteristics affect the welfare of Ukrainians?
The older the person, the lower the level of welfare of the individual (Index of individual welfare decreases with age, see Graph 2), and the perception of public welfare is most positive among young people under 30, and for middle-aged and older people does not change.
Graph 2. IPW and IIW indices for different age groups.
Gender. Representatives of different genders equally assess the situation in Ukraine, the individual welfare of men is significantly higher than that of women (see Table 2). This may be due to the fact that women live longer and well-being worsens with age.
Table 2. Well-being of men and women
As the level of education increases, so does the level of individual welfare (see Graph 3). This is most likely due to the fact that higher education provides a higher level of income. The index perception of public welfare (IPW) is virtually unaffected by education.
Graph 3. IPW and IIW indices for different educational groups.
Type of settlement.
Type of settlement (see Table 3) has little effect on the perception of public welfare and individual welfare.
Table 3. Well-being of urban and rural residents
As for the index of perception of public welfare, it is relatively the highest in the Western region (although there is a negative, equal to -25), see Table 4. But in other regions it is even worse, in the Central -29, in the Southern (-39), and the lowest coefficient in the Eastern region (-42). Thus, we can say that the region of residence has some influence on the assessment of public welfare (the difference between the Western and Eastern region is 17 points).
As for individual welfare, it is highest in the West (19 points) and relatively lower in the East (10 points).
Table 4. Well-being of urban and rural residents
Annex 1. Methods of constructing indices
To construct the indices, we ask 7 questions: 4 questions are taken from the list of those used to build the index of social moods calculated by the Levada - Center, 3 questions are standard for KIIS Omnibuses. These 7 questions are divided into 2 indices based on the results of the factor analysis. Below you can find a list of questions.
Index of perception of public welfare (IPW):
• In your opinion, things in Ukraine are now going in the right direction or in the wrong direction?
• How would you assess the economic condition of Ukraine?
• If to talk about Ukraine as a whole, in your opinion, in a year life in it will be better or worse than now?
Index of individual welfare (IIW):
• Do you consider yourself a happy person?
• How would you rate your health?
• Do you think that in a year your family will live better or worse than now?
• Please look at the card and say which of the statements best describes your family's financial situation?
The value of indices can range from - 100 to 100 points, where - 100 indicates the lowest assessments of the situation for Ukrainians and dissatisfaction with the situation, and 100 - the highest assessments and general satisfaction with the situation in the country and / or their own lives.
Annex 2. Questionnaire questions and coding of alternatives:
In your opinion, the leadership of Ukraine is leading the country in the right or wrong direction? ONE RESPONSE
How would you assess the economic situation in Ukraine? ONE RESPONSE
Do you consider yourself a happy person? ONE RESPONSE
In a year, you think your family will live better or worse than now? ONE RESPONSE
How would you rate your health? ONE RESPONSE
Which of the following statements is most relevant to your family's financial situation?
Annex 3. Tables
In your opinion, the leadership of Ukraine is leading the country in the right or wrong direction?
How would you assess the economic condition of Ukraine?
If to talk about Ukraine as a whole, in your opinion, in a year life in Ukraine will be better or worse than no?
In a year, you think your family will live better or worse than now?
Do you consider yourself a happy person?
How would you rate your health?